LEI 10826 PDF

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Lei 10826 Pdf

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The first aim was to investigate the conjoint influence of country of origin and gender on cyber aggression involvement among Chinese, Indian, and Japanese adolescents. The second aim was to examine the combined effects of country of origin, gender, and the cyber aggression involvement classifications on peer attachment.

Results from the present study provide further evidence that cyber aggression is an issue impacting adolescents across the world. The findings of the present study contribute greatly to the body of literature on cyber aggression involvement because cultural values and face-to-face aggression involvement were included as covariates.

Such findings might be supported by the literature, suggesting that Indian culture promotes and rewards both individualistic and collectivistic behaviors [40]. Given their stronger tendency toward individualism than adolescents in China or Japan, adolescents from India might be more at risk for cyber aggression involvement, which is further supported from the literature linking more face-to-face bullying and victimization among adolescents from individualistic countries e.

This finding is difficult to reconcile with the literature, considering that both countries highly value collectivism and that collectivism is usually associated with less bullying involvement [40]. Access to the internet and frequency of usage is a risk factor associated with cyber aggression involvement, which might indicate that Chinese adolescents are more at risk than Japanese adolescents [30,31].

Such findings are also aligned with other work in Japan, revealing that Japanese adolescents rarely reported being involved in cyberbullying [34]. Understanding cyber aggression involvement in Asia is better understood by focusing on country of origin and gender differences, which reveal complex patterns. The significant two-way interaction between country of origin and gender suggests that boys reported more cyber aggression involvement in China and India than girls in these countries.

The findings from India are difficult to compare with the literature since no research has been conducted on cyber aggression involvement in this country. No gender differences were found for cyber aggression perpetration and victimization among Japanese adolescents. This result is not consistent with the literature.

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For instance, Barlett et al. Such differences might reflect developmental differences in the samples. Concerning peer attachment, country of origin was not significant. Thus, adolescents in China, India, and Japan did not differ in their levels of peer attachment. Such findings might reflect the focus on collectivistic values within their countries, which emphasize interdependence and possibly positive peer relationships [40]. Gender was significant, indicating that girls reported more peer attachment when compared to boys, no matter their country of origin.

This finding is consistent with a recent meta-analysis on gender differences in peer attachment [50]. In addition, uninvolved adolescents reported greater peer attachment when compared to cyberaggressors-cybervictims, cybervictims, and cyberaggressors, which is supported by the literature [53].

Furthermore, cyberaggressors-cybervictims had the worst levels of peer attachment when compared to cybervictims and cyberaggressors. Unlike Burton and colleagues [53], the present study also found that cybervictims had lower levels of peer attachment than cyberbullies. The interaction among country of origin, gender, and cyber aggression involvement was not significant. Such a finding might suggest that collectivism serves some type of protective function.

In their review of the ecological contexts of bullying, Huang and colleagues [37] suggested that the macrosystem, particularly the emphasis on collectivism versus individualism, might mitigate the negative effects associated with face-to-face bullying involvement among Chinese children and adolescents. Limitations and Future Directions Even though the present study provided much needed information concerning cyber aggression perpetration and victimization in China, India, and Japan, there are a few limitations that should be noted and addressed in future research.

First, this study relied on self-reports to assess face-to-face and cyber aggression perpetration and victimization. A multiple informant approach is needed in this research as it reduces the biases associated with self-reports. In addition, recent research has demonstrated the strength of utilizing peer-nominations to assess peer-based cyber aggression involvement [2,11].

Second, this study utilized a concurrent research design to assess cyber aggression perpetration and victimization. Thus, it is impossible to understand the temporal ordering of peer attachment and cyber aggression involvement, and future research should focus on utilizing longitudinal designs.

Conclusions The present study provided a much needed examination of the differences in cyber aggression perpetration and victimization among Chinese, Indian, and Japanese adolescents as well as the differences in the cyber aggression involvement classifications for peer attachment. It is also among a few studies to control for face-to-face aggression involvement and cultural values when examining these differences, which is a methodological improvement and an important direction for researchers interested in the role of culture in cyber aggression perpetration and victimization.

Despite the differences found in the study, these findings suggest that more research should be conducted on cyber aggression involvement among adolescents in China, India, and Japan. This is incredibly important for cyber aggression perpetration and victimization in India as Indian adolescents had the highest levels of these behaviors and victimization when compared to Chinese and Japanese adolescents.

Societies , 5 Author Contributions Michelle F. Wright developed the study proposal, analyzed data, and wrote and edited the manuscript.

Lei 10.8262003

Ikuko Aoyama coordinated data collection, collected data, and edited the manuscript. Shanmukh V. Kamble coordinated data collection, collected data, and edited the manuscript. Zheng Li coordinated data collection, collected data, and edited the manuscript.

Shruti Soudi coordinated data collection, and collected data. Li Lei coordinated data collection. Chang Shu coordinated data collection. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1. Ybarra, M. Examining the overlap in internet harassment and school bullying: Implications for school intervention. Health , 1, S42—S Wright, M. The association between cyber victimization and subsequent cyber aggression: The moderating effect of peer rejection.

Youth Adolesc. Grigg, D. Definition and concept of cyberbullying. Bauman, S. Cyberbullying in a rural intermediate school: An exploratory study. Early Adolesc. Patchin, J. Traditional and nontraditional bullying among youth: A test of general strain theory. Youth Soc. Pornari, C. Peer and cyber aggression in secondary school students: The role of moral disengagement, hostile attribution bias, and outcome expectancies.

Sontag, L. Traditional and cyber aggressors and victims: A comparison of psychosocial characteristics. Topcu, C. Affective and cognitive empathy as mediators of gender differences in cyber and traditional bullying. Ang, R. Cyberbullying among adolescents: The role of affective and cognitive empathy, and gender.

Child Psychiatry Hum. Fanti, K. A longitudinal study of cyberbullying: Examining risk and protective factors. Violence , 13, —, doi: Campbell, M. Kowalski, R. Psychological, physical, and academic correlates of cyberbullying and traditional bullying.

Health , 53, S13—S20, doi: Societies , 5 Schenk, A. Characteristics of college cyberbullies.

Beran, T. The relationship between cyberbullying and school bullying. Wellbeing , 1, 15— Huang, Y. An analysis of multiple factors of cyberbullying among junior high school students in Taiwan. Katzer, C. Cyberbullying in chatrooms: Who are the victims? Media Psychol. Heirman, W. Predicting adolescent perpetration in cyberbullying: An application of the theory of planned behavior.

Psicothema , 24, — Festl, R. Peer influence, internet use and cyberbullying: A comparison of different context effects among German adolescents. Media , 7, — Corcoran, L. Cyberbullying in Irish schools: An investigation of personality and self-concept. Brighi, A. Predictors of victimisation across direct bullying, indirect bullying and cyberbullying.

Gamez-Guadix, M. Longitudinal and reciprocal relations of cyberbullying with depression, substance use, and problematic internet use among adolescents.

Health , 53, —, doi: Beckman, L.

Does the association with psychosomatic health problems differ between cyberbullying and traditional bullying? Laftman, S. Cyberbullying and subjective health: A large-scale study of students in Stockholm, Sweden.

Youth Serv. Erdur-Baker, O. Cyberbullying and its correlation to traditional bullying, gender and frequent and risky usage of internet-mediated communication tools. New Media Soc. Zhou, Z. Cyberbullying and its risk factors among Chinese high school students.

Jang, H. Procedures and Measures Emails were sent to principals from target schools, describing the purpose of the study, how the school could participate, and what adolescents would be expected to do.

When principals expressed an interest in the study, a meeting was setup with principals and teachers in order to receive their permission for their students to participate in the study.

All principals and teachers agreed to allow students to participant in the study. Consent documents were sent home with adolescents, and then returned to their teachers, except in Japan where consent was obtained from school principals only.

On the day of data collection, adolescents provided their assent to participate in the study before completing the surveys. No adolescents refused to participate. This study is part of a larger study on the psychosocial development of adolescents from various countries around the world, with a major focus on understanding the contextual factors which influence their involvement in cyber aggression.

For this study, the following questionnaires were administered, including individualism and collectivism, face-to-face aggression involvement, cyber aggression involvement, and peer attachment. Li and colleagues [55] adapted the Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and Collectivism measure [56] by changing some items to be suitable for adolescents e. There were sixteen items included in this measure, with eight for individualism e.

Participants rated the items on a scale of 1 Absolutely disagree to 9 Absolutely agree. Societies , 5 5. Face-to-Face Aggression Involvement To examine face-to-face aggression involvement, adolescents completed a questionnaire concerning how often they perpetrated face-to-face aggression e.

The items were described as occurring within the current school year. Adolescents rated the eighteen items nine per subscale on a scale of 1 Never to 5 All of the Time. Cyber Aggression Involvement Adolescents indicated how often they perpetrated cyber aggression e. Eighteen items were included on this measure, with nine items per subscale.

They rated all items on a scale of 1 Never to 5 All of the Time. Results To examine the hypotheses for this study, two separate sets of analyses were performed. The first analysis examined differences among adolescents from the three countries regarding their cyber aggression perpetration and victimization.

The second analysis investigated the role of cyber aggression involvement in peer attachment, and the differences across the three countries. Bonferroni corrections were utilized for all post-hoc follow-up analyses. Multi-group factor analysis was performed in Mplus for all four measures. Measurement invariance was not found among any of the groups.

Therefore, the models included cultural values. Interested readers should contact the first author for more information about these additional analyses. Differences in Cyber Aggression Involvement A MANOVA was conducted with cyber aggression perpetration and victimization as the dependent variables, country and gender as the independent variables, and face-to-face aggression involvement perpetration and victimization and cultural values individualism and collectivism as covariates.

An interaction was included between country and gender. Cyber aggression involvement was also higher among Chinese adolescents than Japanese adolescents.

Boys reported more cyber aggression involvement than girls in China and India. There were no gender differences in cyber aggression perpetration and victimization among Japanese adolescents. Table 1. Correlation among all variables for Chinese, Indian, and Japanese adolescents. IND 0. COLL 0. CAP 0. FAP 0.

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The first number is the correlation for Chinese adolescents. The second number is the correlation for Indian adolescents. The third number is the correlation for Japanese adolescents. Societies , 5 Table 2. Means and standard deviations of cyber aggression perpetration and victimization for China, India, and Japan. Means within a column sharing the same subscript letter were found to be significantly different.

An ANOVA was conducted with parental attachment as the dependent variable, and country, gender, and group as the independent variables. Face-to-face aggression involvement, individualism, and collectivism were included as covariates. Three two-way interactions were included between country and groups, country and gender, and gender and groups. A three-way interaction was also included among country, gender, and groups. The main effect of country and the interactions were not significant.

Cybervictims had lower levels of peer attachment than cyberaggressors and uninvolved adolescents. Cyberaggressors-cybervictims had the lowest peer attachment when compared to cybervictims, cyberaggressors, and uninvolved adolescents. Discussion The purposes of this study were twofold.

The first aim was to investigate the conjoint influence of country of origin and gender on cyber aggression involvement among Chinese, Indian, and Japanese adolescents. The second aim was to examine the combined effects of country of origin, gender, and the cyber aggression involvement classifications on peer attachment.

Results from the present study provide further evidence that cyber aggression is an issue impacting adolescents across the world. The findings of the present study contribute greatly to the body of literature on cyber aggression involvement because cultural values and face-to-face aggression involvement were included as covariates. Such findings might be supported by the literature, suggesting that Indian culture promotes and rewards both individualistic and collectivistic behaviors [40].

Given their stronger tendency toward individualism than adolescents in China or Japan, adolescents from India might be more at risk for cyber aggression involvement, which is further supported from the literature linking more face-to-face bullying and victimization among adolescents from individualistic countries e.

This finding is difficult to reconcile with the literature, considering that both countries highly value collectivism and that collectivism is usually associated with less bullying involvement [40]. Access to the internet and frequency of usage is a risk factor associated with cyber aggression involvement, which might indicate that Chinese adolescents are more at risk than Japanese adolescents [30,31].

Such findings are also aligned with other work in Japan, revealing that Japanese adolescents rarely reported being involved in cyberbullying [34]. Understanding cyber aggression involvement in Asia is better understood by focusing on country of origin and gender differences, which reveal complex patterns.

The significant two-way interaction between country of origin and gender suggests that boys reported more cyber aggression involvement in China and India than girls in these countries. The findings from India are difficult to compare with the literature since no research has been conducted on cyber aggression involvement in this country.

No gender differences were found for cyber aggression perpetration and victimization among Japanese adolescents. This result is not consistent with the literature. For instance, Barlett et al. Such differences might reflect developmental differences in the samples.

Concerning peer attachment, country of origin was not significant. Thus, adolescents in China, India, and Japan did not differ in their levels of peer attachment. Such findings might reflect the focus on collectivistic values within their countries, which emphasize interdependence and possibly positive peer relationships [40]. Gender was significant, indicating that girls reported more peer attachment when compared to boys, no matter their country of origin.

This finding is consistent with a recent meta-analysis on gender differences in peer attachment [50]. In addition, uninvolved adolescents reported greater peer attachment when compared to cyberaggressors-cybervictims, cybervictims, and cyberaggressors, which is supported by the literature [53].

Furthermore, cyberaggressors-cybervictims had the worst levels of peer attachment when compared to cybervictims and cyberaggressors. Unlike Burton and colleagues [53], the present study also found that cybervictims had lower levels of peer attachment than cyberbullies. However, this finding is supported by the literature on face-to-face bullying Societies , 5 involvement [59—61].

The interaction among country of origin, gender, and cyber aggression involvement was not significant. Such a finding might suggest that collectivism serves some type of protective function. In their review of the ecological contexts of bullying, Huang and colleagues [37] suggested that the macrosystem, particularly the emphasis on collectivism versus individualism, might mitigate the negative effects associated with face-to-face bullying involvement among Chinese children and adolescents.

Limitations and Future Directions Even though the present study provided much needed information concerning cyber aggression perpetration and victimization in China, India, and Japan, there are a few limitations that should be noted and addressed in future research.

First, this study relied on self-reports to assess face-to-face and cyber aggression perpetration and victimization. A multiple informant approach is needed in this research as it reduces the biases associated with self-reports. In addition, recent research has demonstrated the strength of utilizing peer-nominations to assess peer-based cyber aggression involvement [2,11].

Second, this study utilized a concurrent research design to assess cyber aggression perpetration and victimization. Thus, it is impossible to understand the temporal ordering of peer attachment and cyber aggression involvement, and future research should focus on utilizing longitudinal designs. Conclusions The present study provided a much needed examination of the differences in cyber aggression perpetration and victimization among Chinese, Indian, and Japanese adolescents as well as the differences in the cyber aggression involvement classifications for peer attachment.

It is also among a few studies to control for face-to-face aggression involvement and cultural values when examining these differences, which is a methodological improvement and an important direction for researchers interested in the role of culture in cyber aggression perpetration and victimization. Despite the differences found in the study, these findings suggest that more research should be conducted on cyber aggression involvement among adolescents in China, India, and Japan.

This is incredibly important for cyber aggression perpetration and victimization in India as Indian adolescents had the highest levels of these behaviors and victimization when compared to Chinese and Japanese adolescents. Societies , 5 Author Contributions Michelle F. Wright developed the study proposal, analyzed data, and wrote and edited the manuscript. Ikuko Aoyama coordinated data collection, collected data, and edited the manuscript.

Shanmukh V. Kamble coordinated data collection, collected data, and edited the manuscript. Zheng Li coordinated data collection, collected data, and edited the manuscript. Shruti Soudi coordinated data collection, and collected data. Li Lei coordinated data collection. Chang Shu coordinated data collection.

Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1. Ybarra, M. Examining the overlap in internet harassment and school bullying: Implications for school intervention. Health , 1, S42—S Wright, M. The association between cyber victimization and subsequent cyber aggression: The moderating effect of peer rejection.

Youth Adolesc. Grigg, D.

Cyber-aggression: Definition and concept of cyberbullying. Bauman, S. Cyberbullying in a rural intermediate school: An exploratory study. Zhang, R. Baxter, and P. Hu, A. Alavi, M. Pickard and Bjorn Winkler, Roger K. Chen and M. Payne, M. Lee and J. Lin, J. White and V. Cheng, K. Kunc, and M. Lin, Y. Kuo, M.

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Segall, and J.Universidad No. Parent-child conflict was measured using two scales: Hu, and D. Preparation and Characterization. Lee Surface Science, Vol , pdf Electro-optical modulation for a boron-nitride nanotube probed by first-principles calculations C.

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