1 Maccabees The First Book of the Maccabees. 1 And it happened, after that Alexander son of Philip, the Macedonian, who came out of the land of Chettiim. rished during the times of the Maccabees, and is .. Crutwell, was added to his edition of the Bible actions from the Hebrew book of Maccabees, and. 1st MACCABEES OF THE KING JAMES BIBLE 1 Maccabees. The First Book of the Maccabees. {} And it happened, after that.

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Fools say the Hebrew Bible ignores the Maccabees. . Is There Not a Cause David's Mighty Men. Notes. Please refer to the PDF format of this volume for an undistorted view of the foldout. Call number CameraCanon 5D. The first & second books of the Maccabees. Publication date Publisher London, Dent. Collectionrobarts; toronto. Digitizing sponsorUniversity of Toronto.


Attack and Occupation. Then he attacked the city suddenly, in a great onslaught, and destroyed many of the people in Israel. She became a stranger to her own offspring, and her children forsook her. Religious Persecution. All the Gentiles conformed to the command of the king, 43and many Israelites delighted in his religion; they sacrificed to idols and profaned the sabbath.

He appointed inspectors over all the people, and he ordered the cities of Judah to offer sacrifices, each city in turn. The name referred originally to inhabitants of Kiti, capital of the isle of Cyprus, then to any Cypriots Is ; Jer , later to Greeks in general, and finally even to Romans.

See note on Dn The story of Mattathias and especially his farewell address are most important for our author's purposes. We must stop to examine them more closely.

The author himself says I that the story of Mattathias follows the model of the story of Phineas Num Both words and content follow the model. Both narratives take place at a time of God's wrath against Israel Num , 11; I Just as Phineas showed "zeal" and acted on behalf of the "anger" of the Lord Num and stabbed the sinful couple in their illicit bedchamber, the place of their sin Num ; see the Greek versions so Mattathias was "filled with zeal and anger" and slew the idolater on the altar, the place of his sin.

Book of 3 Maccabees

With the reticence he displays throughout his book, the e 4 4 On the name of the Essenes and the use of it in the Aramaic original of Daniel 11, see Ginsberg, pp.

On origins of the Pharisees: Baron, II, , nn. On Hasid as used by Pharisees: M. Abot ; M.

Hagigah ; To. Sotah , etc. Nickelsburg, Jr. Again the Jewish reader would infer: as Joshua and Caleb were rewarded Num ; Josh , ; Sir , so will Mattathias and his sons be.

Both David and Mattathias as fugitive outlaws loyally lead their bands to fight for the sake of Israel I ; I Sam , and legislate for Israel's welfare I ; I Sam Again our author may be hinting that if David was rewarded, so will Mattathias be.

The parallels between the two massacres of innocents are particularly significant. The priests massacred at Nob belonged to a rejected line of high priests I Sam , , , 20; I Kings Just so, God showed little if any favor to the Pietists who died in their nonresistance I but gave victory to Mattathias, the zealot who dared to make defensive war even on the Sabbath Indeed, our author stresses that many Pietists endorsed Mattathias' course by joining him and his sons 2 : 4 2.

The author avoids assuming the posture of a propagandist urging the Dynastic claims of the Hasmonaeans. The examples are carefully selected: Mattathias, like Abraham, had been ready to sacrifice his offspring , Just as Abraham by such deeds of faith was held to be righteous Gen in the days when Sodom and Gomorrah were destroyed, so the faithfulness of the Hasmonaeans will preserve them from the punishment incurred by the guilt of this "Age of Wrath" I ; cf.

Dan , Contrast the misgivings of the Pietist author of Dan I , , , , , Mattathias was a member of the priestly line of Yehoyarib 2 : 1. Until Antiochus IV appointed an outsider, Menelaus, to the high priesthood cf. II with , the office had long been in the hands of the "Oniad" line, who were descended from Jeshua of the line of Yedayah. Later, when members of the Hasmonaean family were raised to the high priesthood, partisans of the Oniad line and others viewed them as usurpers.


Hence, our author takes care to have Mattathias identify the next example, Phineas, as "our forefather," thus asserting for his own priestly line eligibility for the high priesthood equal to that of the Oniads.

The examples of Joshua, Caleb, and David follow I Next comes Elijah, who, like Phineas and Mattathias, did deeds of zeal in an age of wrath I Kings 18, , 14 ; therefore, Mattathias' family may look forward to rewards like Elijah's, perhaps the gift of prophesy, if not assumption into heaven.

Mattathias' grandson John Hyrcanus, indeed, was granted prophetic revelation. The author probably viewed even the last two examples, the miraculous escapes of Daniel and Hananiah, Azariah, and Mishael as having been equaled by the many Hasmonaean successes against heavy odds I 2: The remainder of First Maccabees serves to bear out the predictions ascribed to the dying Mattathias.

The first & second books of the Maccabees

Shortage of financial resources distracts the king into seeking tribute and booty in the Iranian territories. He leaves Lysias as regent in the western part of the realm and as guardian of the heir to the throne, with ample military resources Judas and his men with the strength of their faith in God defeat Lysias' subordinates and then repulse Lysias himself at Beth-Zur to make possible the purification of the temple and reestablishment of the cult at the very season in which it had been desecrated three years earlier 3 : 3 8 - 4 : 5 8.

For our author, the purification and the de facto end of the persecution came only as a result of military victories. He mentions no diplomacy and no official Seleucid revocation of the decrees.

The dedication of the new altar 7 8 7 Ezra ; Neh , , 6, ; I Chron , See R. Sotah and parallels; cf. Test Levi xviii 6.

Judas, Simon, and Jonathan had striking success in protecting and avenging their Jewish brethren who were attacked by hostile neighboring peoples I 4 : 6 0 - 5 : 6 8. A Jewish reader could see that their campaigns ranged as far as Joshua's. Equally striking failures fall to the lot of rival pretenders to national leadership, so as to demonstrate that divine favor rests upon the descendants of Mattathias Antiochus IV, repulsed in an attempt to plunder a temple in Elymais, receives the news of Judas' victories and dies of melancholy, repenting of the evil he inflicted upon the Jews and appointing Philip to be guardian of the child heir, Antiochus V Lysias establishes Antiochus V as king and keeps power himself as guardian In the course of the campaign Judas' brother Eleazar died a hero's death, and a much reduced force of rebel Jews was besieged in Jerusalem.

On their return to Antioch, they defeat Philip However, the victors themselves fell to a new enemy. Normally, the heir would have been Seleucus' son Demetrius, but at the time Demetrius was a hostage in Rome. Now Demetrius escaped from Rome and took over the Seleucid kingdom.

Led by Alcimus, a claimant to the high priesthood, Jewish enemies of Judas' party successfully appeal to Demetrius for aid.

Although Pietists break with Judas to trust Alcimus and the royal agents, they are disabused when sixty of them are crucified by order of the man they trusted The reader could infer that the Pietists were fools and that Demetrius was a wicked man with wicked subordinates.

Indeed, Demetrius continued to support Alcimus as high priest. The royal agent Nicanor in a fruitless effort to capture Judas even threatens a renewed desecration of the temple but is crushed in battle on the day celebrated ever after as the Day of Nicanor Judas had succeeded as a latter-day Judge of Israel, and there was a brief interlude of peace ; cf.

Judg , 30, etc. Demetrius, however, persisted. His general Bacchides after committing atrocities against Jews offered battle to Judas. Judas' death brought not peace but a period of oppression for the pious and a resurgence of the wicked among the Jews I At this point, Jonathan arises, the reader can see, as a second Judge.

Judas' friends freely choose him.

Jonathan's brothers, John and Simon, may have been older, but both deferred to him. At first, Jonathan operates as an outlaw in the Judaean desert.

The Books of the Maccabees: History, Theology, Ideology

Every Jew knew David had done the same. When his brother John falls victim to Transjordanian marauders, Jonathan proves to be a second Joshua and a worthy son of Mattathias. Religious devotion was not sufficient to emancipate the Jews. In contrast, Jason of Cyrene , the author of the Second book of Maccabees, believed that martyrs were heroes and had power.

He bitterly denies that Pietist martyrs were less favored to the Hasmoneans by God. The tone of each record is in contrast. The author of First Maccabees presents an objective and sober account, taking influence from the authors of the Hebrew Bible. Second Maccabees is notably subjective and emotional. For instance, Jason of Cyrene has an emotional outburst in his narrative, where he powerfully supports the belief in resurrection, which is denied in First Maccabees.They re-established the laws that were in danger of being abolished, while the Lord favored them with every kindness.

Continuatio Mediaevalis Turnhout: Simon's conduct was always proper. Then he suddenly launched a fierce attack on the city, dealing it a major blow and killing many of the people. Abot ; M. Brill, , 53—

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