The process of protein synthesis provides cells with building blocks and regulatory Protein synthesis proceeds through three phases: initiation of mRNA . Protein Synthesis: What Is It? • During transcription a molecule of messenger. RNA (mRNA) is synthesized according to instructions provided by the DNA. Lecture Protein Synthesis. Key learning goals: • Be able to explain the main stuctural features of ribosomes, and know (roughly) how many DNA and protein.

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The Mechanism of Protein Synthesis. Problems: 2,3,6,7,9,13,14,15,18,19, • Initiation: Locating the start codon. • Elongation: Reading the codons (5'→3') and. RNA Polymerase consists of a core enzyme and a σ (sigma factor). The core enzyme consists of four peptide chains, α, β, β, ώ. • The enzyme itself is ineffective. Protein synthesis is the process in which a cell makes protein based on the message contained within its DNA. • However: – DNA is only found in the nucleus.

The purpose of this review is to examine the advancements in our understanding of the mechanisms by which refeeding and amino acids in particular function to maintain protein accretion in striated muscle.

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The physiologic importance lies in the potential ability of amino acids as specific nutrients designed to counteract the high host protein wasting associated with a number of disease entities, including cancer, HIV infection, sepsis, and diabetes, thereby preventing potential complications and limiting debilitating morbidities.

Ultimately, mortality in septic patients is reduced 3. Likewise, BCAA-enriched oral supplementation improves morbidity and quality of life in patients undergoing major liver resection and chemo-embolization for hepatic carcinoma 6. Overview of synthesis of proteins in mammalian systems Synthesis of proteins in mammalian cells is a complex process 7 , 8 Fig.

The accelerated rates of protein synthesis appear independent of hyperacidemia. Hence, the nutrient-induced increases most likely involve processes other than amino acid availability, i. Indeed, nutrients appear to stimulate protein synthesis largely by accelerating mRNA translation initiation faster than elongation. Two major steps in mRNA translation initiation control protein synthesis.

Oral feeding does not enhance the formation of 43S preinitiation complex 10 , The next regulatory step involves the recognition, unwinding, and binding of mRNA to the 43S preinitiation complex, catalyzed by a multi-subunit complex of eukaryotic factors referred to as eIF4F 12 — Acute provision of nutrients enhances this step, the assembly of active eIF4F complex 2 , To our knowledge, we were the first to report a positive linear relationship between rates of protein synthesis and amount of eIF4G associated with eIF4E in vivo 20 , consistent with the proposed role of eIF4G-eIF4E complex in the overall regulation of protein synthesis.

FIGURE 3 Dual function of leucine as oxidative fuel and activator of signaling pathways by direct and indirect processes adapted from FIGURE 3 View large Download slide Dual function of leucine as oxidative fuel and activator of signaling pathways by direct and indirect processes adapted from Increased phosphorylation of eIF4G correlates with accelerated rates of protein synthesis in cell extracts 32 and in striated muscle in vivo 33 — Meal feeding augmented the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1 Thr , both of which are associated with activation of these modulators of translation initiation.

Phosphorylation PKB, an upstream kinase responsible for phosphorylating mTOR, on Thr was only elevated after one-half hour of meal feeding, whereas phosphorylation Ser was significantly elevated up to 1 h after initiation of feeding. In cardiac muscle, a slightly different response to meal feeding was observed Leucine can substitute for a complete protein meal Of the nutrients provided by a complete meal, postprandial increases in the plasma concentration of amino acids after a mainly protein-containing meal may provide a signal for accelerating protein synthesis 37 , Infusing amino acids in vivo enhances muscle protein synthesis independent of any stimulatory effect induced by changes in plasma anabolic hormone concentrations 1 , 39 — Indeed, an oral gavage with leucine resulted in a stimulation of protein synthesis that was independent of changes of plasma insulin concentrations, whereas a gavage containing carbohydrates glucose plus sucrose that raised insulin concentrations over 2.

This does not mean that anabolic hormones are not required for the effects of amino acids on mRNA translation initiation.

Indeed, administration of anti-insulin antibodies blunts the effects of refeeding to stimulate protein synthesis 45 , Moreover, when insulin secretion is retarded by somatostatin infusions 47 , oral leucine gavage was ineffective in augmenting rates of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle Amino acids probably stimulate key regulatory protein factors controlling protein synthesis rather than simply increasing substrate supply, which would be expected to enhance only peptide-chain elongation and not translation initiation 49 , Amino acids, BCAA leucine, isoleucine, and valine in particular, not only provide substrate for protein synthesis but are also now recognized to stimulate a number of cell-signaling pathways important in the regulation of mRNA translation 38 , 51 — The m1A58 modification in tRNALys is absent in myoblasts with the MERRF mutation Post-transcriptional modifications of mitochondrial tRNAs are functionally important to achieve and stabilize the cloverleaf structure, and for decoding during translation elongation In MERRF, the 5-taurinomethyl 2-thiouridine modification on the anticodon wobble base is missing on the tRNALys purified from cybrid cells 7 and from a patient liver biopsy In the absence of this U34 modification, translation on cognate codons is impaired using an in vitro 5 assay.

However, metabolic labeling of mitochondrial protein synthesis in human cells is at odds Fig.

Protein biosynthesis

Furthermore, lack of the analogous 5-methoxycarbonylmethylthiouridine mcm5s2U U34 modification of the yeast cytoplasmic tRNALys does not prevent decoding but rather substantially slows down the rate of translation elongation due to ribosome pausing on lysine codons 10 , Therefore, we asked whether other RNA modifications were important to the molecular pathogenesis either directly on tRNALys or to the entire pool of mitochondrial tRNAs as part of regulatory feedback from impaired protein synthesis.

At Watson—Crick face methylation sites, such as N1-methyladenosine m1A , the thermophilic RT generates both stop and read-through mutation sequencing reads. M1A9 produces two peaks, the first corresponds to RT stop and mutations upon copying the m1A nucleotide and the second stop was due to m1A9 present in the RT template.

In contrast, the m1A9 on the D arm required for the formation of the cloverleaf structure of tRNALys 25 and catalyzed by a different methyltransferase complex 26 , was detected in both wild-type and MERRF cells. Our sequencing approach expanded the landscape of MERRF pathogenesis by implicating a novel methyl modification on tRNALys, highlighting the versatility and robustness of DM-tRNA-seq for investigating the regulation of mitochondrial gene expression disorders.

From each of the libraries, 22—50 million reads were mapped.

This finding is entirely consistent with our data from proliferating myoblasts, strongly suggesting a key role of this modification in the pathogenesis of MERRF. Whereas another study showed how structurally abnormal mitochondrial tRNAs can be polyadenylated for degradation For this analysis, we sorted sequence reads into two pools based upon the presence or absence of the CCA tail.

Aminoacylation of tRNAs requires the addition of the CCA extension, which is catalyzed by a mitochondrially targeted TRNT1, and is critical for mitochondrial protein synthesis and human health 28 , These data indicate that adenylation of mitochondrial tRNAs is a far more complex process than previously thought and may play a role in the regulation of mitochondrial tRNA populations and the pathogenesis of human disease.

Importantly, TRMT61B overexpression increased the synthesis of selected proteins and suppressed the generation of aberrantly sized polypeptides Fig.

The magnitude of this effect did not correlate with the number of lysine codons of a given polypeptide. Aberrantly sized labeled polypeptides are indicated. Representative data of multiple independent experiments Full size image Next, we asked whether the increased protein synthesis with TRMT61B overexpression also modulated the short term and long-term stability of mitochondrial nascent chains.

To test if mitochondrial ribosome stability was affected by TRMT61B overexpression, we assessed the steady-state levels of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins from the small and large subunit by immunoblotting because their abundance is a reliable proxy for stability 33 but found no difference Fig. Our data showed that restoration of the m1A58 on tRNALys can enhance translation in MERRF, arguing against this methyl modification as being a strictly negative regulator of mitochondrial gene expression as has been proposed for the m1A modification on mitochondrial mRNAs 31 , Rather, there appears to be a tight regulation of this methyl modification on mitochondrial RNAs to finely tune mitochondrial protein synthesis.

Because reduced modification of the anticodon wobble base position is implicated in MERRF pathogenesis, we wanted to test whether overexpression of the key enzymes could also modulate mitochondrial translation. MTU1 catalyzes the thiol modification of the anticodon wobble base, a reaction that is required for human health 34 , but appears to have no effect on mitochondrial protein synthesis in human fibroblasts In contrast, overexpression of MTO1 had a marked effect on mitochondrial protein synthesis and protein stability Fig.

MTO1 overexpression restored mitochondrial protein synthesis to wild-type levels Fig. Moreover, these effects were independent of the m1A58 modification Fig.

No adverse effects were observed on wild-type myoblasts overexpressing MTO1. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that post-transcriptional modifications of mitochondrial tRNAs exert differential effects on protein synthesis and stability, revealing the profound influence that RNA modifications have on mitochondrial gene expression and the pathogenesis of human disease.

The sense strand represents the genetic code for the protein that will be produced during translation. You can tell it is an exact replica of the gene because the nitrogen bases are in the same order as the sense strand.

The only difference is the uracil substitution for thymine, which is appropriate.


This image is in the public domain "Courtesy: National Human Genome Research Institute. Click the image to access an interactive animation where you get to play the role of RNA polymerase. The animation opens in a new window. When you are finished close the window to return to the resource. The image you see below depicts translation, the second major step in the process of protein synthesis. The image across the top is of ribosomes translating mRNA codon messages into proteins.

Examine the expanded ribosome graphic closely. All three of these molecules are different types of RNA that perform different functions. What functions do you think each molecule performs? Next, look for the words codon and anti-codon.

Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis in Plants

Do you see any patterns? Look for grouping and bonding patterns.

Now, focus on the tRNA molecules. Transfer RNA 1 is adding an amino acid to a peptide chain to make a protein. Two more tRNA molecules are in line to add their amino acid to the chain. Proceed to the text below the image for the next activity. In this activity, you will take on the role of transfer RNA in the translation from nucleic acid to protein language.

Protein Synthesis

Before you click the image to begin the activity, make sure to note the base-pair matching pattern. You'll need the information to synthesize your protein correctly.

The interactive animation opens in a new window. When you are finished, close the window and continue learning about protein synthesis. In this next activity, you have a chance to play the role of transfer RNA from a slightly different perspective.

This time you will process translation from the amino acid sequence backwards to the mRNA codon. For example, as tRNA, your assigned amino acid is valine. Which mRNA codons specify the amino acid valine in the protein sequence?Our ability to distinguish different pools of mitochondrial tRNA was only possible because of the ability of DM-tRNA-seq to obtain nucleotide resolution.

Aberrantly sized labeled polypeptides are indicated.

Aren't you glad nucleic acids create proteins to help living organisms function? In translation, messenger RNA mRNA is decoded to produce a specific polypeptide according to the rules specified by the trinucleotide genetic code.

Elevations in circulating insulin concentrations and amino acid supply are the 2 critical components of the meal affecting protein turnover in a variety of tissues following refeeding. Your challenge is to attempt to sequence the steps in the protein synthesis process in the activity below. Before you click the image to begin the activity, make sure to note the base-pair matching pattern.

Meal feeding augmented the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1 Thr , both of which are associated with activation of these modulators of translation initiation. You can tell it is an exact replica of the gene because the nitrogen bases are in the same order as the sense strand.

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