Page 1. Journey to the West. Wu Cheng−en. Page 2. Table of Contents. Journey to the. Format Type: PDF (eBook) Journey to the West is one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature. The novel is a fictionalized account of the legendary pilgrimage to India of the Buddhist monk Xuanzang, and loosely based its. Free site book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. Read this book online: Generated HTML (with images).
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Find Journey to the West at Google Books This abridged edition captures the novel's intimate and unsparing view of how power is wielded, how diplomacy is. Journey to the West. Pages · · Beautiful Boy: A Father's Journey through His Son's Addiction. Pages·· Proof of Heaven: A Neurosurgeon's Journey into the Afterlife Pdfdrive:hope Give books away. Get books. The book The Journey to the West, Revised Edition, Volume 1, Translated and Edited by Anthony C. Yu is published by University of Chicago Press.
The Dragon King had told Sun Wukong he could have the staff if he could lift it, but was angry when the monkey was actually able to pull it out and accused him of being a thief; hence Sun Wukong was insulted, so he demanded a suit of armour and refused to leave until he received one.
The Dragon King, unwilling to see a monkey making troubles in his favourite place, also gave him a suit of golden armour. These gifts, combined with his devouring of the peaches of immortality, three jars of elixir, and his time being tempered in Laozi 's Eight-Trigram Furnace he gained a steel-hard body and fiery golden eyes that could see very far into the distance and through any disguise. He is therefore always able to recognise a demon in disguise while the rest of the pilgrimage cannot.
However, his eyes become weak to smoke , makes Sun Wukong the strongest member of the pilgrimage by far. Besides these abilities, he can also pluck hairs from his body and blow on them to convert them into whatever he wishes usually clones of himself to gain a numerical advantage in battle. The monkey, nimble and quick-witted, uses these skills to defeat all but the most powerful of demons on the journey.
Sun's behavior is checked by a band placed around his head by Guanyin , which cannot be removed by Sun Wukong himself until the journey's end.
Tang Sanzang can tighten this band by chanting the "Ring Tightening Mantra" taught to him by Guanyin whenever he needs to chastise him. Tang Sanzang speaks this mantra quickly in repetition. Sun Wukong's childlike playfulness is a huge contrast to his cunning mind.
This, coupled with his great power, makes him a trickster hero. His antics present a lighter side in what proposes to be a long and dangerous trip into the unknown.
Once an immortal who was the Marshal of the Heavenly Canopy commanding , naval soldiers of the Milky Way , he drank too much during a celebration of the gods and attempted to flirt with the moon goddess Chang'e , resulting in his banishment to the mortal world.
He was supposed to be reborn as a human but ended up in the womb of a sow due to an error on the Reincarnation Wheel, which turned him into a half-man, half-pig monster. Zhu Bajie was very greedy, and could not survive without eating ravenously. Staying within the Yunzhan Dong "cloud-pathway cave" , he was commissioned by Guanyin to accompany Tang Sanzang to India and given the new name Zhu Wuneng. However, Zhu Bajie's appetite for women led him to the Gao Family Village, where he posed as a normal being and wedded a maiden.
Later, when the villagers discovered that he was a monster, Zhu Bajie hid the girl away, and the girl wailed bitterly every night. His weapon of choice is the jiuchidingpa " nine-tooth iron rake ".
He is also capable of 36 transformations as compared to Sun Wukong's 72 , and can travel on clouds, but not as fast as Sun. However, Zhu is noted for his fighting skills in the water, which he used to combat Sha Wujing, who later joined them on the journey. He is the second strongest member of the team.
Being spiritually the lowest of the group, at the end of the journey, he remained on earth and was granted the title "Cleaner of the Altars", that is, he was allowed to "clean" the offerings off the altars by eating and drinking them. He was exiled to the mortal world and made to look like a monster because he accidentally smashed a crystal goblet belonging to the Queen Mother of the West during a Peach Banquet.
The now-hideous immortal took up residence in the Flowing Sands River, terrorising surrounding villages and travellers trying to cross the river. They consequently took him in, as part of the pilgrimage to the West. Sha's weapon is a magic wooden staff wrapped in pearly threads. He also knows 18 transformation methods and is highly effective in water combat. Sha is known to be the most obedient, logical, and polite of the three disciples, and always takes care of his master, seldom engaging in the bickering of his fellow disciples.
He has no major faults nor any extraordinary characteristics. Perhaps this is why he is sometimes seen as a minor character. When he returned, however, not everything was going so well, because his subjects were being bullied by a local monster.
Monkey was able to defeat the monster fairly easily, but decided precautions had to be taken to ensure his subjects could no longer be threatened. He armed them, drilled them in military exercises, and decided to find himself a proper weapon.
To do this, he traveled to the palace of the old Dragon King, and demanded that he be given a weapon. He bullied the dragon for so long that he finally let Sun Wukong take a magic rod that Monkey could make as big or as small as he wished. He returned home, feeling pretty pleased with himself, but the Dragon King was a bit offended by his treatment.
The emperor, deciding that the best course was cooption rather than open confrontation, issued an invitation, asking Sun to accept a title and official post in heaven. The second backstory creates a fictional history for Hsuang-tsang, the monk. The narrative tells us about his father, who was a great scholar, and was travelling with his pregnant wife to his new job as governor of a far-off province. Along the way, he is murdered by a ferryman, who forces the wife to pretend that he is her husband.
They travel together to the province where the murderer assumes the position as governor, conning the populace into believing he is the man he has murdered. The young boy is raised in the monastery, eventually gaining an impressive reputation for his upright character and his skills as a scholar. He promises to hold a Grand Mass for the Dead that will help ease their suffering, and promises to spread the teachings of Buddhism. The emperor becomes blood brothers with the monk, issues him an official passport and sends him on his way with great fanfare.
Only then, at chapter 13, does the monk finally begin his journey, along the way picking up his four companions: Sun Wukong, Pa-Chieh, Sha Monk, and a small dragon who is transformed into a white horse. Each of these had been banished from heaven for some type of transgression, but was saved by Kuan-yin to help the monk on his quest. In this case, the three religions are Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism. Despite all of these residual characteristics of oral storytelling, however, the narrative is clearly the product of a literate, bureaucratic class.
The book is insistently textual. Texts pervade the narrative, starting with the very reason for the quest itself — to obtain written scriptures. It also typifies literate culture in that it is highly satirical. The story gleefully pokes fun at a Chinese bureaucracy that 1 apparently cannot get anything done unless someone has written permission to do so, and 2 refuses to believe something officially exists unless it has been inventoried in a written file.
This is a problem whether one is on earth, in heaven, or in the Region of Darkness. When Sun Wukong is , he finds himself escorted to the afterlife, which resembles nothing if not a Kafka-esque bureaucracy. Age: three-hundred and forty-two years.
A good end. All I want is to erase my name. Wu-kung took the ledger on monkeys and crossed out all the names he could find in it. Now I am truly not your subject. The power of the written record is absolute. This is as true for written orders as it is for ledgers. Early on in the narrative, the Dragon King of the Ching River is executed because he failed to follow written instructions precisely.
Rain will come at the hour of the Horse and reach its limit at the hour of the Sheep. Instead the Dragon King allowed it to rain only three feet and 40 drops 1. These are not the heroes of oral narrative: they are divided from themselves in that they recognize the existence of an interior life separate from external appearances.
In The Journey to the West, the main characters could be described as heroic in proportion, and in this respect, they contrast with the protagonists that begin to show up in 16th and 17th C European literature. At the same time, however, the narrator repeatedly emphasizes the fact that their success depends on their acting as one unit. If one of the group leaves, or if they continue to argue with one another, the quest will fail. The narrator emphasizes this by associating each of the characters with one of the five basic elements of Taoist alchemy: water, fire, wood or mercury, metal, and earth.
According to Anthony Yu, Monkey, for instance, is often associated with metal, particularly gold. Rather than portraying a single character who undergoes an internal struggle that must be resolved, The Journey West represents a single psyche using five separate characters. In order to succeed, they must come to function as though they were a single mind. This divided collectivity may have something to do with a fundamental difference between how Europeans and Chinese perceive evil.
For westerners, evil is seen as something to be wiped out — it exists in and of itself and the evil thing must be eliminated.
When St. George battles the dragon, he just has to kill it. The idea is to get rid of it. Everything belongs here and has its proper place. Evil results when something steps out of its place. Even the adversaries that get killed must have their true natures restored to them, even if this happens through their deaths.
In one instance, an evil Taoist magician turns out to have been a tiger.
The Journey to the West, Revised Edition, Volume 1
By revealing his true nature, even in death, cosmic balance is restored; existence begins to function once again as a harmonious whole. The five characters of the narrative need to learn how to function in the same way, as a harmonious whole, a single psychic unit, not as separate individuals. The arguments between Sun, Pa-chieh, and Hsuan-tsang externalize the internal struggles faced by one who seeks enlightenment.
Pa-chieh embodies the struggle against physical desires. By the end of the quest, those tendencies that are too extreme must be tempered, and those traits that are weak must be enhanced or cultivated.
In order to achieve this harmony, it is the trickster figure — Monkey — who plays the greatest role.
西遊記 by Cheng'en Wu
In his origins, he is wholly outside the cosmological system, a fact which Monkey initially does everything he can to emphasize. The narrator tells us: You see, though this monkey resembled a human being, he was not listed under the names of men; though he resembled the short-haired creatures, he did not dwell in their kingdoms; though he resembled other animals, he was not subject to the unicorn; and though he resembled flying creatures, he was not governed by the phoenix.
He had, therefor, a separate ledger. To avoid destruction, heaven must find a way to incorporate Monkey into the cosmos. Hsuang-tsang does this by forcibly teaching Sun impulse control, such that, by the end of the quest, his disruptive powers become a force for positive transformation, rather than chaotic destruction — his abilities benefit the community, rather than his ego.Starzinger: An animated science fiction version of the story.
In return, the disciples will receive enlightenment and forgiveness for their sins once the journey is done. Jenner, Journey to the West , volume 4. There he remained trapped for years, until one day Tang Monk passed by the mountain.
Sun Wukong's childlike playfulness is a huge contrast to his cunning mind. These gifts, combined with his devouring of the peaches of immortality, three jars of elixir, and his time being tempered in Laozi 's Eight-Trigram Furnace he gained a steel-hard body and fiery golden eyes that could see very far into the distance and through any disguise.
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