Download full-text PDF. Available via license: CC . and CSF diagnostic features of Hakim–Adams syndrome were. thus ful lled (2). Because of Before attemp ting shunt surgery, some di erential diagnosis of. unexplained. Download Citation on ResearchGate | Hakim-Adams syndrome | Hakim-Adams syndrome is little known, although Do you want to read the rest of this article?. This paper reviews the clinical findings in the Hakim-Adams syndrome and distin- guishes it from . even small ventricular size, and large ventricles could de-.
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Download PDF · ReadCube · EPUB · XML (NLM); Supplementary Hakim– Adams Syndrome: An Unusual Cause of Reversible Postoperative Coma. image Normal pressure hydrocephalus or Hakims–Adams syndrome was first described in , and the . Marina Soro, Hospital Clinico Universitario de Valencia, Spain. A case of Syndrome de Hakim-Adams occurring in a year-old male was admitted for investigation of a dementia syndrome. The patient presented with clinical. Hakim-Adams Syndrome Download citation file: Hakim Syndrome; Normal- Pressure Hydrocephalus; Normotensive Hydrocephalus; Occult Hydrocephalus.
In this study, the valve used was a fixed pressure valve. They differ in the cerebrospinal fluid CSF flow mechanism.
In fixed pressure valves, the CSF flows through the shunt when the intracranial pressure reaches a fixed threshold. In programmable valves, this threshold may be adjusted according to the patient's symptoms. Thus, the most adequate pressure can be achieved for each patient.
In flow-regulated valves, the CSF flow is continuous, regardless of pressure. These valves may differ in price, given that programmable valves and flow-regulated valves involve more advanced technology and are more expensive. Qualitative evaluation through epidural monitoring reveals Lundberg B waves with spikes of up to 50 mmHg, occurring mainly at night.
These waves reflect the dynamics of the production, circulation and absorption of CSF, indicating that cerebral compliance is abnormal.
A series of 90 patients was reported with satisfactory clinical results. Despite fixed pressure valves being used with good results, there are complications caused by overdrainage in a significantly higher percentage.
Some studies suggest that the advantage of reprogramming programmable valves is not translated into a reduction in surgical revisions and, therefore, fixed pressure valves could be used. Higher resistance to outflow was found in patients with obliterated cortical sulci and obliterated Sylvian cisterns in the CT scan.
No statistically significant correlation was found when plotting the percentage of beta waves against pressure volume index PVI , compliance or Rout. Additional studies taking into consideration these differences are necessary before defining the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of ICP monitoring and CSF studies in selecting appropriate candidates for shunting.
Preview Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. References 1. Anderson M Normal pressure hydrocephalus. Br Med J — Google Scholar 3.
Black PM Normal-pressure hydrocephalus. Current understanding of diagnostic tests and shunting. Postgr Med 57—67 Google Scholar 5.
Blessed G, Tomlinson BE, Roth M The association between quantitative measures of dementia and of senile change in the cerebral grey matter of elderly subjects. Br J Psychiat — Google Scholar 6. Acta Neurochir Wien 1—45 Google Scholar 7.
A method of evaluation by lumbo-ventricular perfusion, with particular reference to normal pressure hydrocephalus. A comparison with radioisotope encephalography. Clough CG A case of normal pressure hydrocephalus presenting as levodopa responsive parkinsonism letter.
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Neur 1: 3—10 Google Scholar Fillenbaum G Screening the elderly. A brief instrumental activities of daily living measure.
Because of this, patients do not exhibit the classic signs that accompany increased intracranial pressure such as headache, nausea, vomiting, or altered consciousness, although some studies have shown pressure elevations to occur intermittently.
The exact pathogenesis is unknown, but consensus on some mechanisms include: An imbalance exists between production and resorption of CSF.
The resistance to CSF outflow is often elevated. The syndrome is often divided into two groups, primary also called idiopathic and secondary, based on cause.
Initial Experience with the Hakim Valve for Ventriculovenous Shunt
The underlying etiology of primary NPH has not yet been identified. Primary NPH affects adults age 40 years or older, most commonly affecting the elderly.
Secondary NPH can affect persons of any age and occurs due to conditions such as subarachnoid hemorrhage , meningitis , brain surgery, brain radiation, or traumatic brain injury. Diagnosis[ edit ] Evan's index is the ratio of maximum width of the frontal horns to the maximum width of the inner table of the cranium.Chin Med J Engl.
FA, however, increases in the internal capsule, especially in its anterior limb, and decreases in the corpus callosum, especially at the level of the genu. Figure 5. It is also noteworthy to emphasize the role of brain MRI in this setting where transependymal CSF resorption might be mistaken for age-related white matter changes or leukoaraiosis on brain CT imaging.
Via Mons. In their observation, the authors incriminated anesthetic drugs as a trigger of long-lasting postoperative drowsiness and altered consciousness in this setting.